Trum jw, gubler fm, laan r, van der veen F (1996) The value of palpation, varicoscreen contact thermography and colour Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of varicocele. Hum Reprod 11:12321235 PubMed google Scholar. Eau (2010) eau guidelines edition presented at the 25th eau annual Congress: eau guidelines Office, arnhem, The netherlands google Scholar. Hoekstra t, witt ma (1995) The correlation of internal spermatic vein palpability with ultrasonographic diameter and reversal of venous flow. J urol 153:8284 PubMed CrossRef google Scholar. Cina a, minnetti m, pirronti t et al (2006) Sonographic quantitative evaluation of scrotal veins in healthy subjects: normative values and implications for the diagnosis of varicocele. Eur Urol 50:345350 PubMed CrossRef google Scholar.
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Does varicocele lump grade predict the postoperative changes of semen
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Against Varicocele Embolization
Illustration depicting location of abdominal aneurysm 3D model of Aortic aneurism main article: Abdominal aneurysm Signs and symptoms Abdominal aortic aneurysm involves a regional dilation of the aorta it is diagnosed using ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging, a segment of the aorta that. 8 Abdominal aneurysms are usually asymptomatic, but rarely can cause lower back pain or lower limb ischemia. Renal (kidney) aneurysm edit Flank pain and tenderness Hypertension haematuria signs of hypovolemic shock risk factors edit risk factors for an aneurysm include diabetes, obesity, hypertension, tobacco use, alcoholism, high cholesterol, copper deficiency, increasing age, and tertiary syphilis infection. 16 :602 Specific infective causes associated with aneurysm include: A minority of aneurysms are associated with genetic factors. Examples include: Pathophysiology edit Aneurysms form for a variety of interacting reasons. Multiple factors, including factors affecting a blood vessel wall and the blood through the vessel, contribute. A variety of different factors, including atherosclerosis, may contribute to weakening of a blood vessel wall. The repeated trauma of blood flowing through the vessel may contribute to degeneration clarification needed of the vessel wall. Hypertensive injury may compound this degeneration and accelerate the expansion of the aneurysm.
The legs, including the popliteal arteries. Citation needed The kidney, including renal artery aneurysm and intraparechymal aneurysms. 9 Capillaries, specifically capillary aneurysms. Cerebral aneurysms, also known as intracranial or brain aneurysms, occur most commonly in the anterior cerebral artery, which is part of the circle of Willis. This can cause severe strokes leading to death. The next most common sites of cerebral aneurysm occurrence are in the internal carotid artery. 10 size edit Abdominal aorta size classification Ectatic or mild easy dilatation.0 cm and.0 cm 11 Moderate.0 -.0 cm 11 Large or severe.0 11.5 12 cm Abdominal aortic aneurysms are commonly divided according to their size and symptomatology.
An aneurysm is usually defined as an outer aortic diameter over 3 cm (normal diameter of the aorta is around 2 cm 13 or more than 50 of normal diameter that of a healthy individual of the same sex and age. 8 14 If the outer diameter exceeds.5 cm, the aneurysm is considered to be large. 12 The common iliac artery is classified as: 15 Normal diameter 12 mm Ectatic diameter 12 to 18 mm Aneurysm diameter 18 mm Signs and symptoms edit Aneurysm presentation may range from life-threatening complications of hypovolemic shock to being found incidentally on X-ray. 16 Symptoms will differ by the site of the aneurysm and can include: Cerebral aneurysm edit main article: Cerebral aneurysm Symptoms can occur when the aneurysm pushes on a structure in the brain. Symptoms will depend on whether an aneurysm has ruptured or not. There may be no symptoms present at all until the aneurysm ruptures. 17 For an aneurysm that has not ruptured the following symptoms can occur: Fatigue loss of perception Loss of balance Speech problems double vision For a ruptured aneurysm, symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may present: severe headaches Loss of vision double vision Neck pain.
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3 :357 The size of the base or neck is useful in determining the chance of for example endovascular coiling. 7 Saccular aneurysms hond are spherical in shape and involve only a portion of the vessel wall; they vary in size from 5 to 20 cm (8 in) in diameter, and are often filled, either partially or fully, by a thrombus. 3 :357 Fusiform aneurysms spindle-shaped" aneurysms) are variable in both their diameter and length; their diameters can extend up to 20 cm (8 in). They often involve large portions of the ascending and transverse aortic arch, the abdominal aorta, or less frequently the iliac arteries. 3 :357 Location edit Aneurysms can also be classified by their location: Arterial and venous, with arterial being more zwangerschap common. Citation needed The heart, including coronary artery aneurysms, ventricular aneurysms, aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, and aneurysms following cardiac surgery. The aorta, namely aortic aneurysms including thoracic aortic aneurysms and abdominal aortic aneurysms. 8 The brain, including cerebral aneurysms, berry aneurysms, and CharcotBouchard aneurysms.
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Aneurysms can arise in the heart itself following a heart attack, including both ventricular and atrial septal aneurysms. Contents, classification edit, aneurysms are classified by type, morphology, or location. True and false aneurysms edit, a true aneurysm is one that involves all three layers of the wall of an artery ( intima, media and adventitia ). True aneurysms include atherosclerotic, syphilitic, and congenital aneurysms, as well as ventricular aneurysms that follow transmural myocardial infarctions (aneurysms that involve all layers of the attenuated wall of the heart are also considered true aneurysms). 3 A false aneurysm, or pseudoaneurysm, is a collection of blood leaking completely out of an artery or vein, but confined next to the vessel by the surrounding tissue. This blood-filled cavity will eventually either thrombose (clot) enough to seal the leak, or rupture out of the surrounding tissue. 3 :357 Pseudoaneurysms can be caused by trauma that punctures the artery, such as knife and bullet wounds, 4 as a result of percutaneous surgical procedures such as coronary angiography or arterial grafting, 5 or use of an artery for injection. 6 Morphology edit Aneurysms can also be classified by their macroscopic shape zwanger and size, and are described as either saccular or fusiform. The shape of an aneurysm is not specific for a specific disease.
For other uses, see, aneurysm (disambiguation). Not to be confused with ebullism or embolism. An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened pijn to a bubble or balloon. 1, aneurysms are a result of a weakened blood vessel wall, and may be a result of a hereditary condition or an acquired disease. Aneurysms can also be a nidus (starting point) for clot formation ( thrombosis ) and embolization. The word is from, greek : νεύρυσμα, aneurysma, "dilation from νευρύνειν, aneurynein, "to dilate". As an aneurysm increases in size, the risk of rupture increases, 2 leading to uncontrolled bleeding. Although they may occur in any blood vessel, particularly lethal examples include aneurysms of the. Circle of Willis in the brain, aortic aneurysms affecting the thoracic aorta, and abdominal aortic aneurysms.
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There were no side-related differences when comparing identical varicocele grades (in all cases. Venous diameters above.45 mm in rest (sensitivity 84, specificity 81).95 mm during Valsalva (sensitivity 84, specificity 84) predicted the presence of a clinical varicocele. Conclusions, our findings support the hypothesis that clinical varicoceles can be predicted with high accuracy based only on forte the diameter of testicular veins using cut-point values.45 mm in rest.95 mm during Valsalva maneuver in the supine position. Keywords, varicocele Color Doppler ultrasound Infertility Venous diameter, abbreviations. Cdu, color Doppler ultrasound, roc, receiver-operator characteristic, notes. Conflict of interest, the present authors have no conflict of interest. Noske hd, weidner W (1999) Varicocelea historical perspective. World j urol 17:151157.
clinical varicocele and 88 without clinical varicocele) were investigated by physical examination and color Doppler ultrasound and categorized according to who varicocele criteria (0, subclinical, i, ii, and iii). Diameter and reflux of the largest vein in the pampiniform plexus were measured bilaterally with the patient in the supine position in rest and during the valsalva maneuver. To assess the possibility of differentiating varicocele grade by venous diameter, optimal cut-point values were determined by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results, with increased varicocele grade, a larger vein diameter was more significant in rest and during Valsalva (in all cases. P .05 except between grade i and grade. Retrograde peak flow velocities were similar in every group (in all cases. P .1). Only grade iii varicoceles demonstrated significantly increased peak flow values compared with all other grades (. P .001).